The genotype of a cannabis plant is the genetic makeup that determines the possible characteristics of that plant which include height, color, ability to produce resin and resistance to disease. Cannabis seeds contain all the genetic information that determine the physical, visual, and growth characteristics of a plant.

The full set of genetic traits within a plant’s DNA is called the genome and is key to understanding the potential of that cannabis cultivar and how its physical appearance and growth may be influenced by environmental conditions. A cannabis plant’s genotype is not the same as the phenotype, which refers to visually observable characteristics which can be a result of plant care and environmental factors. A cannabis plant’s genotype will determine what the final phenotype will be, with a spectrum of possibilities that the plant should exhibit. No two plants will contain the exact same genome, other than clones which are exact copies with identical genotypes.